Module Enum

module Enum: sig .. end
Enumeration over abstract collection of elements.

Enumerations are entirely functional and most of the operations do not actually require the allocation of data structures. Using enumerations to manipulate data is therefore efficient and simple. All data structures in ExtLib such as lists, arrays, etc. have support to convert from and to enumerations.

type 'a t 

Final functions

These functions consume the enumeration until it ends or an exception is raised by the first argument function.

val iter : ('a -> unit) -> 'a t -> unit
iter f e calls the function f with each elements of e in turn.
val iter2 : ('a -> 'b -> unit) -> 'a t -> 'b t -> unit
iter2 f e1 e2 calls the function f with the next elements of e and e2 repeatedly until one of the two enumerations ends.
val fold : ('a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'b -> 'a t -> 'b
fold f v e returns v if e is empty, otherwise f aN (... (f a2 (f a1 v)) ...) where a1..N are the elements of e.
val fold2 : ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'c -> 'a t -> 'b t -> 'c
fold2 is similar to fold but will fold over two enumerations at the same time until one of the two enumerations ends.

Indexed functions : these functions are similar to previous ones except that they call the function with one additional argument which is an index starting at 0 and incremented after each call to the function.
val iteri : (int -> 'a -> unit) -> 'a t -> unit
val iter2i : (int -> 'a -> 'b -> unit) -> 'a t -> 'b t -> unit
val foldi : (int -> 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'b -> 'a t -> 'b
val fold2i : (int -> 'a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'c -> 'a t -> 'b t -> 'c

Useful functions

val find : ('a -> bool) -> 'a t -> 'a
find f e returns the first element x of e such that f x returns true, consuming the enumeration up to and including the found element, or, raises Not_found if no such element exists in the enumeration, consuming the whole enumeration in the search.

Since find consumes a prefix of the enumeration, it can be used several times on the same enumeration to find the next element.

val is_empty : 'a t -> bool
is_empty e returns true if e does not contains any element.
val peek : 'a t -> 'a option
peek e returns None if e is empty or Some x where x is the next element of e. The element is not removed from the enumeration.
val get : 'a t -> 'a option
get e returns None if e is empty or Some x where x is the next element of e, in which case the element is removed from the enumeration.
val next : 'a t -> 'a
next e returns the next element of e (and removes it from enumeration).
Raises No_more_elements if enumeration is empty
val push : 'a t -> 'a -> unit
push e x will add x at the beginning of e.
val junk : 'a t -> unit
junk e removes the first element from the enumeration, if any.
val clone : 'a t -> 'a t
clone e creates a new enumeration that is copy of e. If e is consumed by later operations, the clone will not get affected.
val force : 'a t -> unit
force e forces the application of all lazy functions and the enumeration of all elements, exhausting the enumeration.

An efficient intermediate data structure of enumerated elements is constructed and e will now enumerate over that data structure.

Lazy constructors

These functions are lazy which means that they will create a new modified enumeration without actually enumerating any element until they are asked to do so by the programmer (using one of the functions above).

When the resulting enumerations of these functions are consumed, the underlying enumerations they were created from are also consumed.

val map : ('a -> 'b) -> 'a t -> 'b t
map f e returns an enumeration over (f a1, f a2, ... , f aN) where a1...N are the elements of e.
val mapi : (int -> 'a -> 'b) -> 'a t -> 'b t
mapi is similar to map except that f is passed one extra argument which is the index of the element in the enumeration, starting from 0.
val filter : ('a -> bool) -> 'a t -> 'a t
filter f e returns an enumeration over all elements x of e such as f x returns true.
val filter_map : ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a t -> 'b t
filter_map f e returns an enumeration over all elements x such as f y returns Some x , where y is an element of e.
val append : 'a t -> 'a t -> 'a t
append e1 e2 returns an enumeration that will enumerate over all elements of e1 followed by all elements of e2.
val concat : 'a t t -> 'a t
concat e returns an enumeration over all elements of all enumerations of e.


In this section the word shall denotes a semantic requirement. The correct operation of the functions in this interface are conditional on the client meeting these requirements.

exception No_more_elements
This exception shall be raised by the next function of make or from when no more elements can be enumerated, it shall not be raised by any function which is an argument to any other function specified in the interface.
val empty : unit -> 'a t
The empty enumeration : contains no element
val make : next:(unit -> 'a) ->
count:(unit -> int) -> clone:(unit -> 'a t) -> 'a t
This function creates a fully defined enumeration.

For some samples on how to correctly use make, you can have a look at implementation of ExtList.enum.

val from : (unit -> 'a) -> 'a t
from next creates an enumeration from the next function. next shall return the next element of the enumeration or raise No_more_elements when no more elements can be enumerated. Since the enumeration definition is incomplete, a call to clone or count will result in a call to force that will enumerate all elements in order to return a correct value.
val init : int -> (int -> 'a) -> 'a t
init n f creates a new enumeration over elements f 0, f 1, ..., f (n-1)


val count : 'a t -> int
count e returns the number of remaining elements in e without consuming the enumeration.

Depending of the underlying data structure that is implementing the enumeration functions, the count operation can be costly, and even sometimes can cause a call to force.

val fast_count : 'a t -> bool
For users worried about the speed of count you can call the fast_count function that will give an hint about count implementation. Basically, if the enumeration has been created with make or init or if force has been called on it, then fast_count will return true.